Cover Page

Cite item


Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are etiologic agents of glanders and melioidosis, the particularly dangerous infections of animals and humans, and are attributed to potential agents of bioterrorism. The manifestation of diseases ranges from acute septicemia to chronic infection, any organs and tissues are affected, andtreatment requires long intravenous and oral antibiotic courses. The endemic zone of glanders and melioidosis covers spacious regions in the world, and the number of imported cases to temperate regions is constantly increasing. For the Russian Federation, glanders and melioidosis are «forgotten» and «unknown» infections, and this review presents current data on their distribution in the world, epidemiological aspects, and laboratory diagnosis features.

About the authors

I. B. Zakharova

Volgograd Research Institute for Plague Control

Author for correspondence.
Russian Federation

A. V. Toporkov

Volgograd Research Institute for Plague Control

Russian Federation

D. V. Viktorov

Volgograd Research Institute for Plague Control

Russian Federation


  1. Мелиоидоз и сап. Под ред. Топоркова А. В. Волга-пресс, Волгоград, 2016.
  2. Онищенко Г.Г., Топорков А.В., Липницкий А.В., Викторов Д.В. Проблемы противодействия биологическому терроризму на современном этапе. Инфекционные болезни: Новости. Мнения. Обучение. 2016, 1 (14): 24-31.
  3. Al-Ani F.K., Roberson J. Glanders in horses: a review of the literature. Veterinarski Arh. 2007, 77:203218.
  4. Benoit T.J., Blaney D.D., Doker T.J. et al. A review of melioidosis cases in the Americas. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2015, 93(6): 1134-1139.
  5. Berger S. Melioidosis and Glanders: Global Status: 2018 edition. GIDEON Informatics, Inc, Los Angeles, California, USA. 2018.
  6. Chewapreecha C., Holden M.T., Vehkala M. et al. Global and regional dissemination and evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Nature microbiology. 2017, 2(4):16263.
  7. Choy J.L., Mayo M., Janmaat A. Animal melioidosis in Australia. Acta tropica. 2000, 74(2-3):153-158.
  8. Currie B.J. Melioidosis: evolving concepts in epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers. 2015, 36(1):111-125.
  9. Douglas M.W., Lum G., Roy J. et al. Epidemiology of community acquired and nosocomial bloodstream infections in tropical Australia: a 12 month prospective study. Trop Medicine International Health. 2004, 9(7):795-804.
  10. Dvorak G.D., Spickler A.R. Glanders. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008, 233(4): 570-577.
  11. Elschner M.C., Hnizdo J., Stamm I. Isolation of the highly pathogenic and zoonotic agent Burkholderia pseudomallei from a pet green Iguana in Prague, Czech Republic. BMC veterinary research. 2014, 10(1): 283.
  12. Elschner M.C., Neubauer H., Sprague L.D. The Resurrection of Glanders in a new Epidemiological Scenario: A Beneficiary of «Global Change». Current Clinical Microbiology Reports. 2017, 4(1): 54-60.
  13. Elschner M., Liebler-Tenorio E., Brbgmann M. et al. Re-appearance of glandersintoWestern Europe: clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in a German horse. OIE Bulletin report about recent glanders case in a free region. 2016, 1:76-9.
  14. Elschner M.C., Klaus C.U., Liebler-Tenorio E. et al. Burkholderia mallei infection in a horse imported from Brazil. Educ Equine Vet. Educ. 2009, 21(3):147-50.
  15. Gilad J., Harary I., Dushnitsky T. et al. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei as bioterrorism agents: national aspects of emergency preparedness. IMAJ-RAMAT GAN. 2007, 9: 499503.
  16. Go P.C., Sansthan A. Glanders-A re-emerging Zoonotic disease. J. Biol. Sci. 2014, 14:38-51.
  17. Gregory B.C., Waag D.M. Glanders. In: Medical aspects of biological warfare. 2007, 121: 146.
  18. Guilhot A., Bricaire F., Bossi P. Glanders, melioidosis and biowarfare. Presse medicale (Paris, France: 1983). 2005, 34(2 Pt 2): 185-188.
  19. Hoffmaster A.R., Au Coin D., Baccam P. et al. Melioidosis diagnostic workshop, 2013. Emerging infectious diseases. 2015, 21(2). DOI:
  20. Kaestli M., Schmid M., Mayo M. Out of the ground: aerial and exotic habitats of the melioidosis bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in grasses in Australia Environmental microbiology. 2012, 14(8):2058-2070.
  21. Khan I., Wieler L.H., Melzer F. et al. Glanders in animals: a review on epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and countermeasures. Transboundary and emerging diseases. 2013, 60 (3): 204-221.
  22. Limmathurotsakul D., Golding N., Dance D.A. et al. Predicted global distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei and burden of melioidosis. Nature microbiology. 2016, 1(1):15008 nmicrobiol.2015.8.
  23. Limmathurotsakul D., Jamsen K., Arayawichanont A. et al. Defining the true sensitivity of culture for the diagnosis of melioidosis using Bayesian latent class models. PloS one. 2010, 5(8):e12485.
  24. Lo T.J., Ang L.W., James L. et al. Melioidosis in a tropical city state, Singapore Emerging infectious diseases. 2009, 15(10):1645.
  25. OIE. World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface (2018) 2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation.
  26. Price E.P., Sarovich D.S., Smith E.J. et al. Unprecedented melioidosis cases in northern Australia caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei strain identified by using large-scale comparative genomics. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2016, 82(3):954-963.
  27. Price E.P., Smith M.L., Paxinos E.E. et al. Whole-genome sequences of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates exhibiting decreased meropenem susceptibility. Genome announcements. 2017, 5(14):e00053-17.
  28. Rega P.P. CBRNE - Glanders and melioidosis. eMedicine (online). 2015. Available at: http://emedicine.
  29. Saidani N., Griffiths K., Million M. et al. Melioidosis as a travel-associated infection: case report and review of the literature. Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2015, 13(5):367-381.
  30. Sarovich D.S., Garin B., De Smet B. et al. Phylogenomic analysis reveals an Asian origin for African Burkholderia pseudomallei and further supports melioidosis endemicity in Africa. MSphere. 2016, 1(2): e00089-15.
  31. Srinivasan A., Kraus C.N., Deshazer D. et al. Glanders in a military research microbiologist. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001, 345(4): 256-258.
  32. Thatrimontrichai A., Maneenil G. Neonatal melioidosis: systematic review of the literature The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2012, 31(11):1195-97.
  33. Van Zandt K.E., Greer M.T., Gelhaus H.C. Glanders: an overview of infection in humans. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2013, 8:131. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-8-131.
  34. Waag D.M., DeShazer D. Glanders: new insights into an old disease. In: Lindler L.E., Lebeda F.J., Korch G.W. eds. Biological weapons defense: infectious diseases and counter bioterrorism. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2004.
  35. Wiersinga W.J., Virk H.S., Torres A.G. et al. Melioidosis. Nature reviews Disease primers. 2018, 4:17107.
  36. Wittig M.B., Wohlsein P., Hagen R.M. et al. Glanders - a comprehensive review. DTW. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2006, 113(9):323-330.
  37. Zakharova I.B., Lopasteyskaya Y.A., Toporkov A.V., Viktorov D.V. Influence of Biochemical Features of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains on Identification Reliability by Vitek 2 System. Journal of global infectious diseases. 2018, 10(1): 7-10.

Copyright (c) 2018 Zakharova I.B., Toporkov A.V., Viktorov D.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: ПИ № ФС77-75442 от 01.04.2019 г.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies